Skin: an indicator organ of an individual's health

There is no external part of the human body that is not covered by the skin.

Skin, in fact, covers the entire body of the individual, and from it we get a whole range of information that can come in handy about the state of health of a human being.

The word “Cute” in Italian, takes the same meaning: “Skin” in vertebrates and particularly in humans.


What is skin? The structure of the skin, the layers and anatomy of the skin

The skin or skin is the outermost organ of the body that indicates the health status of any individual.
Symptoms and signs on the skin highlight a person’s psycho-somatic state, so the integrity of the skin is an important indicator of the concept of prevention and more generally of an individual’s well-being.
Thus, the skin is the largest organ of our body.
There is no external part of the human body that is not covered by the skin. The skin or skin is divided into three primary layers: the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.

Let us see together the graphic representation of the layers of our skin.

Pelle: gli strati della pelle

Skin or skin: the outermost layer

If you look at human skin under a microscope you will notice that it consists of three layers:

  2. the epidermis;
  3. the dermis;
  4. the hypodermis.

In the skin or skin are found the cutaneous annexes: sweat glands and sebaceous, hairy apparatus.

The pores of the skin perform the most important function

The pores of the skin perform the function of allowing the skin to breathe and eliminate excess sebum, a fatty substance that protects the skin itself.
The thickness of the cute varies between 0.5 mm and 4 mm or more, depending on body regions and individuals.
The cleansing of the skin and ridding the pores of impurities, becomes a fundamental action for the health and beauty of our skin.

Epidermis: the vessel-free layer in 5 layers

Epidermis (from Greek “epì” above and “dermis” skin), denotes the outermost, epithelial layer devoid of vessels.
This layer is composed of a zone rich in continuously reproducing activated cells and a horny zone formed by dead and stratified cells.
Specifically, the epidermis occurs in five cellular layers which are:

The stratum corneum: the outermost layer

The stratum corneum is composed of epithelial cells, the walls of which are made into a particular horny substance called keratin.
Keratin is a filamentous protein rich in sulfur, the main constituent of the stratum corneum of the epidermis.

The glossy layer: contains the protein eleidine, which gives the red color to the lips

The glossy layer, with epithelial cells lacking keratin, is locatedbetween the stratum corneum and the granular layer, and is composed of cells containing eleidin, the protein responsible for the red color of the lips.


The granular layer: the barrier of the epidermis

The granular layer, which lies between the shiny and the spiny, is made up of cells that help create a barrier to protect the epidermis.
A real barrier to protect our body from all impurities!

The spiny layer: contains keratin filaments similar to spines

The spiny layer lies between the granular and basal layers.
Bone is formed by cells that contain thorn-like keratin filaments hence the name “spinous.”

The basal(or germ layer) is the deepest layer

The basal layer is the deepest layer of the epidermis also called the germinative layer that anchors to the underlying dermis.

Skin functions: what are the main functions of the skin?

Several are thefunctions of the skin.We list the most important functions of the skin.
They are:

  1. Protective function,
  2. Thermoregulatory function,
  3. Tactile function because the skin is the seat of the sense of touch,
  4. Respiratory function,
  5. Secretory function,
  6. Antimicrobial defensive function,
  7. Reproductive function.

The protective function: our skin is a real protective barrier

The protective function of the skin constitutes a form of barrier from possible traumas of different nature and magnitude.
The dermis has the task of protecting our body from bumps, rubbing, moisture, excessive cold and heat, and wind.
This protection is due to the nature of the skin itself, which is endowed with elasticity due to the presence of elastic collagen fibers.

The skin varies in thickness according to different areas of the body

Skin does not have the same thickness on every part of the body.
On the palm of the hands and on the plant of the feet, where it is most subjected to wear and tear, it becomes thicker, more resistant, and hardens to the point of forming calluses.

Skin protects the body from solar radiation, thanks to melanin and urocanic acid

Another role of the skin’s protective function is its ability to protect the body from solar radiation.
This crucial role is played by melanin and an acid found in sweat, urocanic acid both of which play an initial shielding action from ultraviolet radiation.

Tremoregulatory function: the skin keeps our body temperature constant, thanks to thermoregulation

The skin serves for thermoregulation, that is, it maintains at normal values the temperature of the body.
For the function of thermoregulation, considerable importance has the dermal vessels, which determine the transit of blood flow (vasoconstriction and vasodilation) and the sweat glands, which through the secretion of fluid, commonly called sweat, removes excessive heat from the body.

The sense of touch: the tactile function of the skin

In the skin there are dermal receptors and innervations designed to take in external stimulations (thermal, painful, and pressure) and transmit them to the central nervous system.
There are different receptors that are highly specialized, with specific tasks: for heat, and cold, for pain, for itching.
The receptor organs, the cutaneous innervation present in the dermis allow the individual an adaptation to external environmental conditions.

Respiratory function of the skin: the skin absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide

The skin breathes and can absorb oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen reaches the skin both externally and internally carried by the blood.
It has been shown that daily the skin absorbs an amount of oxygen equal to 5 liters.

The secretory function of the skin: through sweat we purify our body

The secretory function of the skin assumes a fundamental role for our body. Predisposed to this function are the sweat glands, which provide for the cleansing of the body of waste substances.
Water, CO2, sebum are eliminated from the dermis. The latter, specifically, has an antiseptic, antimicrobial and emollient action on the skin. In addition, through the presence of the excrine glands, mineral salts (potassium, magnesium, sodium) are eliminated.

The antimicrobial defensive function of the skin via the sebaceous glands

In optimal situations, the skin has a good antimicrobial and antiseptic ability.
This is due to the function of the sebaceous glands that secrete the hydrolipid film (the sebum), and the acidity of the skin ( PH 5).
When the body is attacked by external substances (viruses, fungi, bacteria), various types of skin cells and the immune system are activated to defend the body.

The reproductive function of the skin: skin tissues regenerate “magically”

The skin’s ability to regenerate cellular tissue begins in the germ layer and continues in the other layers, concluding with keratinization and finally desquamation.
The skin is an organ in continuous renewal. If treated with dermatologically tested products, tissue regeneration can be promoted because dead cells can be disposed of easily.

Various skin types: skin changes structure according to gender, race

The skin is the organ that most of all interfaces between our body and the external environment.
It strongly expresses gender differences, both physiologically and structurally. This is due to the different hormonal and genetic makeup and from behavioral factors.

Men, women, children and the elderly have different skin: from color to skin thickness, all the differences

Thanks to recent discoveries and sophisticated techniques for measuring the skin and its characteristics, it is possible to evaluate, in a scientific way, the physiological differences between men’s and women’s skin, thus giving scientific answers to what in the past were only impressions, such as, for example, the fact that women’s skin is lighter than men’s, thus distinguishing facts from feelings.

Man’s skin

Men have a greater secretion of steroid hormones; the most important hormone is testosterone, which not only results in physiological differences between men and women, but also establishes the thickness of the skin which is 20% greater on average than that of women, also results in richer collagen fibers.
The sebaceous glands and pores are more numerous in men, so more sebum is produced therefore it results more oily.
Wrinkles appear later in men, but they are deeper.
Numerous are the differences. Here, we will analyze individual skin types in relation to gender.


Women’s skin: sensitive to climate and hormonal changes

The skin of women has the same basic structure and composition as that of men.
In women, the differences are physiological, due fundamentally to the different hormonal set-up. In fact, it has been scientifically proven the phenomenon that hormones influence thermoreceptors, which are responsible for thermoregulation, thus more sensitive to climate change.
As for the PH of the skin of women it is less acidic than that of men.

Baby’s skin: delicate and sensitive

The skin of the newborn is particularly sensitive to external attacks light, cold and heat.
This is because in infants the sebaceous glands are not fully active, thus the protective sebaceous layer is lacking, so the skin is found to be rather dry.
Scarce is the production of melanin in children while in infants it is absent. Equally inactive are the sweat glands. From the above, it is important to protect children from external agents.

The skin of the elderly: skin aging

The skin of the elderly undergoes transformations. We talk about real dermal aging, which is given by the sum of interactions between genetics, biology and environment, chronoaging and photoaging. We divide skin aging into two types:

  1. Chronological aging, better known as spontaneous aging (chronoaging);
  2. lifestyle-related aging (Photoaging).
Chronoaging: time and age can leave indelible marks on our skin

Chronological aging is given by the biological result of the passage of time, at the skin level, without taking into account the contribution of external chemical or physical agents.

This can be observed, analyzing and examining the skin of the covered parts of the body.

Photoaging: lifestyle affects the health of our weathered skin

Photoaging aging is induced by sunlight on uncovered parts of the body: it becomes essential to protect the skin, especially during summer, with creams with a high protection factor.

Skin aging: the factors that contribute to this process

The determinants of aging are of two types:

  • intrinsic factors and
  • extrinsic factors.

The first are genetic in nature, given by the degree of pigmentation of the dermis itself, light skin, light eyes and blond-red hair.
The second ones depend on outdoor activity, photo-exposed locations and the environment in which one lives (latitude).
To combat skin aging, it is essential to take care of our skin, using products, such as nourishing and natural creams, that respect the ph of our skin.
How can we take care of our skin? Here are natural remedies to solve the problems that most afflict men and women.

Skin care: problems and natural remedies for our skin

The skin is a fundamental organ in humans, it, while possessing so-called innate immunity, is nevertheless exposed to various problems.
Taking care of the skin is essential to counter aging and maintain a youthful appearance.

The skin: the main and most common skin problems

The most common skin problems are:

  • oily skin,
  • dry skin,
  • rosacea,
  • wrinkles,
  • dark skin spots,
  • bags,
  • dark circles under the eyes.

Such blemishes mainly affect the skin of the face.
If we pause to examine the causes, we can find natural remedies, which are found in our environment, but whose healing properties we are unaware of.

Skin disorders depend on several factors

Skin disorders depend on several factors such as:

  • age,
  • gender,
  • race,
  • genetic characteristics,
  • lifestyle,
  • environmental factors.

Elasticity in the skin: what to do to make the skin more elastic

A fundamental characteristic of the skin is elasticity; it continually adapts to our postures.
As we age, this property is lost, as cellular metabolism slows down and the skin undergoes a daily deterioration called the aging process.

Skin aging: it starts with advancing age because elastin is reduced

The skin undergoes a real structural change.
Elastin production decreases significantly and the skin begins to age.
The epidermis becomes thinner, loses production of elastin and collagen by fibroblasts , consequently transforms and some sagging is noticed, primarily on the face. The first wrinkles appear on the face and decollete.

Skin wrinkles: expression lines indicate a loss of skin tone

In addition to the epidermis, the dermis also shrinks in thickness, causing sagging of the structure. The latter causes the appearance of wrinkles typical of the aging process. The first wrinkles are expression lines, due to facial contractions. Such wrinkles indicate a progressive loss of skin tone. Aging is not the same for everyone; it depends on internal (genetic) and external (environmental) factors.

Facial skin irritation and redness, burning and itching of the skin, and dryness of the dermis: what are the causes?

When the skin becomes irritated, it undergoes an alteration that results in a change in physiological skin Ph. This alteration is manifested by various symptoms: redness and burning. Skin reddening is due to actual local inflammation caused by the dilation of blood vessels in the skin. The burning of the skin is related to the stimulation of nerve endings in the skin.

Itchy skin is a sign of disturbance in the body: what is it due to and what does it entail?

An uncomfortable sensation felt by the skin is itching. It is one of the signals that communicates a disturbance in the body; it is difficult to pinpoint the cause; chemical mediators and nerve circuits are stimulated.

Skin itching: dryness and flaking of the skin are the phenomena associated with it

Dryness and desquamation are often associated phenomena. Dryness involves the loss of fluids (dehydration), desquamation involves the loss of cells of the first layer of the skin (the stratum corneum). The phenomenon manifests as keratin scales on the skin peeled off and occurs especially during the winter season related to changes in temperature.
Another skin irritation is the appearance of pimples . They are due to inflammation of the hair follicles and peri-follicular tissue.
Their presence can be caused by hormonal changes, stress, poor diet, but also by real diseases.

Asphyxiated skin: meaning

Asphyctic skin refers to an altered uniformity of the skin with a consequent reduction in radiance. There are many factors that result in asphyctic skin:

  • excessive sebum production;
  • incorrect cosmetic treatments and poor hygiene.

Sebum and the flaking of horny skin cells

It is a true abnormal reaction of the skin in that there is an excessive presence of sebum, together with flaky horny cells.
Therefore superficially the appearance is greasy, characteristic of oily skin, at the same time the flaky cells make it dry, preventing the skin from breathing properly.
Incorrect cosmetic treatments, poor diet, poor vitamin intake, and poor hygiene are factors that aggravate the presence of asphyxiated skin.

Senescent skin indicates prematurely aged skin

The term senescence indicates the state of skin aging.
Senescent skin looks dehydrated, thin, dull, with spots, wrinkles, dark circles, and pronounced bags.
Skin imperfections are noticeable as the skin ages.
Premature aging can also occur when the skin undergoes cellular changes that may be pathological, genetic, or behavioral in nature, abruptly and before its time.

Melanoma can be an unpleasant result of skin aging

In either case, senescent skin becomes more sensitive to external trauma, the effects of solar radiation, and is at risk for melanoma.

Natural skin remedies: take care of your skin

Taking care of the skin is important.
In today’s image society, it becomes necessary to keep one’s body beautiful, well-groomed, and efficient over time in order to present oneself pleasing in appearance.
There are many remedies for skin care: it is important to find and try natural remedies.
It is enough to follow some basic rules to maintain good health of the skin and the body in a broader sense.
We at Dermacosmesi know well what to do and what to suggest. Our products are organic, that is, free of chemical agents. We use only natural remedies because following and indulging Nature, can make us more pleasing and attractive.

Healthy lifestyle can come our way: small vademecum to protect your skin

Simple natural remedies are also often to be found in our lifestyles.
To maintain glowing and healthy skin, it is necessary:

  • follow a healthy and proper diet,
  • avoid alcohol,
  • drink copious amounts of water,
  • do not smoke,
  • sleep eight hours a night,
    protect the skin from UV rays with sunglasses and sunscreen,
  • engage in physical activity,
  • avoid stressful situations (temperature changes, too hot/cold/humid environments, pollution),
  • cleanse the skin before going to bed,
  • apply a specific cream for the problem.

Skin hygiene: tips for thorough skin cleansing

Skin hygiene should not be neglected if this organ is to function perfectly.
As it is exposed to the outside world it easily comes into contact with dust, smoke and dirt of various kinds.
Neglecting skin hygiene can result in the formation of a patina that prevents the skin from functioning in its actions of sebum regulation, thermoregulation and protection.
To avoid problems, blemishes and pathologies, it becomes of paramount importance, to wash hands as often as possible, daily bath and shower at a temperature of 30°/35°.
It must be kept in mind that washing too often or with soaps that are too harsh can be a problem in the thin membrane that maintains the skin’s skin balance and guards its softness and protection.
One must choose soaps with neutral PH (7) or slightly acidic PH (5.5).

How to purify facial skin: thorough washing, scrub, creams, gentle cleansers and masks can make our skin supple and glowing

Purifying facial skin means ridding it of impurities.
Facial cleansing allows the skin to be thoroughly purified through the removal of germs and bacteria, dead cells, blackheads, pimples and other minor skin blemishes.
Of necessary importance is the daily cleansing of the face with specific products, chosen and suitable for the type of skin you have.

Cleansing the skin: remember to remove eye makeup

Good cleansing, done at least twice a day, morning and evening, is the key to keeping our skin fresh and radiant.
First, gentle massage with a specific cleanser is recommended.
Important to remove any makeup residue from the eyes, paying attention to cleansing the neck and ears. We proceed by rinsing the skin of the face with plenty of lukewarm water and at the conclusion a gentle drying.

Use the cream: emollient, moisturizing, anti-aging and toning, after proper cleansing of the face and body

After cleansing, it is important to apply a specific cream, suitable for one’s skin, emollient, moisturizing, anti-aging and toning.
In addition to the necessary daily cleansing, for deeper cleansing it is recommended to use scrubs or gommage, with exfoliating action, to remove surface cells and rid the skin of impurities.

The perfect scrub: skin exfoliation is a panacea for men and women

The use of a scrub is recommended on a weekly basis, even in the case of sensitive or delicate skin, choosing in this case a suitable formula that is undoubtedly gentler.
Proper exfoliation is necessary for both women’s and men’s skin.
The latter will be smoother, smoother, even the beard will be softer.

The scrub for sensitive skin

For particularly sensitive skin that cannot tolerate any mechanical abrasion such as a scrub, a scrub is more suitable: a facial cosmetic that has the consistency of a cream or gel, without microgranules, to be massaged in to remove impurities and the surface layers of the epidermis.
It is used on dry skin.

The dermopurifying masks

Important for purifying the face is the use of dermopurifying masks that absorb and remove impurities and excess sebum, leaving the face clean and radiant.
After use, the skin will be visibly firmer and more toned.

Question of peeling

Another effective method of removing keratinized cells from the face is peeling.
Usually chemical in nature, it in fact consists of applying exfoliating, irritating substances to the face that can come into contact with the deeper surfaces of the dermis.
The most commonly used are glycolic acid, salicylic acid, mandelic acid, trichloroacetic acid ,pyruvic acid, phenol.

Skin irritations:the natural remedies

To treat skin irritations, nature comes to us with very effective and flawless remedies.
We at Dermacosmetics are familiar with this issue and can give you the right tips to solve this annoying problem of your skin.

Use ice, an excellent natural remedy for dermal irritation

Ice, when applied immediately, reduces redness and irritation.
Cold compresses on irritated skin reduce swelling itching giving immediate relief.

Warm baths with oatmeal: inflammation for sensitive skin is no longer a problem

Warm baths with oatmeal, help reduce inflammation and, this type of bath can be very moisturizing especially for more sensitive skin.

Use soaps with vegetable oil: aloe vera, borage, calendula, snail slime, honey, coconut oil and Evo oil will definitely do the trick

Also valid is the use of soap made from vegetable oil.
First natural remedy is undoubtedly Aloe Vera gel, a panacea thanks to its anti-inflammatory, soothing healing properties, a true elixir of nature thanks to the presence of minerals, vitamins and amino acids is able to promote blood circulation, leading the irritated part to immediate healing.

Borage and its fantastic oil

Borage oil, with the presence of mucilage and polyunsaturated fatty acids, counteracts skin irritation.

Calendula: a plant with exceptional principles, especially for the treatment of children’s irritation

Marigold a special plant with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory properties, scars reddened skin, excellent ally of mothers, is used a lot as a remedy of children’s skin.

Snail slime: the slowness of these cute mollusks quickly bears fruit

Snail slime, a recent discovery, has interesting characteristics from a pharmacological and therapeutic point of view.
It is a real protective shield against external agents being rich in collagen, elastin, glycolic acid, vitamin A and E, it is important in moisturizing, nourishing and exfoliating the skin itself. Ceramides, phytosterols and hyaluronic acid are important ingredients that, by strengthening the skin’s natural defenses, prevent any irritation and inflammation.

The industriousness of bees in the service of skin care

Honey a natural ingredient with powerful anti-inflammatory, antibacterial properties. Everyone knows that it is a true natural antibiotic.

Evo oil and coconut oil are very rich in vitamin E

Coconut oil reduces reddened skin after sun exposure, olive oil with the presence of vitamin E and antioxidants is able to facilitate healing by promoting cell renewal and is also able to reduce the uncomfortable itching sensation that often occurs with skin irritation.

claudia cipopllone


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